Simulation with variation modules

Without variation modules, simulated SNMP Agents are always static in terms of data returned to SNMP Managers. They are also read-only. By configuring particular OIDs or whole subtrees to be routed to variation modules, that allows you to make returned data changing over time.

Another way of using variation modules is to gather data from some external source such as an SQL database or executed process or distant web-service.

It’s also possible to modify simulated values through SNMP SET operation and store modified values in a database so they will persist over Simulator restarts.

Variation modules may be used for triggering events at other systems. For instance the notification module will send SNMP TRAP/INFORM SNMP messages to pre-configured SNMP Managers on SNMP SET request arrival to snmpsimd.py.

Finally, variation module API let you develop your own code in Python to fulfill your special needs and use your variation module with stock Simulator.

Configuring variation modules

To make use of a variation module you will have to edit existing or create a new data file adding reference to a variation module into the tag field by means of recording variation modules.

Remember .snmprec file format is a sequence of lines having the OID|TAG|VALUE fields? With variation module in use, the TAG field complies to its own sub-format - TAG-ID[:MODULE-ID].

Examples

The following .snmprec file contents will invoke the writecache module and cast its returned values into ASN.1 OCTET STRING (4) and INTEGER (2) respectively:

1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0|2:volatilecache|value=42

Whenever a subtree is routed to a variation module, TAG-ID part is left out as there might be no single type for all values within a subtree. Thus the empty TAG-ID sub-field serves as an indicator of a subtree.

For example, the following data file will serve all OIDs under 1.3.6.1.2.1.1 prefix to the “sql” variation module:

1.3.6.1.2.1.1|:sql|snmprec

The value part is passed to variation module as-is. It is typically holds some module-specific configuration or initialization values.

Another example: the following .snmprec line invokes the “notification” variation module instructing it to send SNMP INFORM message to SNMP manager at 127.0.01:162 over SNMPv3 with specific SNMP params:

1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0|67:notification|version=3,user=usr-md5-des,\
    authkey=authkey1,privkey=privkey1,host=127.0.0.1,ntftype=inform,\
    trapoid=1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2,value=123456

The standard variation modules are installed into the Python site-packages directory. User can pass Simulator an alternative modules directory through the command line.

Simulator will load and bootstrap all variation modules it finds. Some modules can accept initialization parameters (like database connection credentials) through snmpsimd.py –variation-module-options command-line parameter.

For example, the following Simulator invocation will configure its sql variation module to use sqlite database (sqlite3 Python module) and /var/tmp/snmpsim.db database file:

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=sql:dbtype:sqlite3,\
    database:/var/tmp/snmpsim.db

IF you are using multiple database connections or database types all through the sql variation module, you could refer to each module instance in .snmprec files through a so-called variation module alias.

The following command-line runs Simulator with two instances of the involatilecache variation module (dbA & dbB) each instance using distinct database file for storing their persistent values:

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=writecache=dbA:file:/var/tmp/fileA.db \
    --variation-module-options=writecache=dbB:file:/var/tmp/fileB.db

The syntax for –variation-module-options= module configuration string is comma-separated list of semicolon-separated name:value pairs:

--variation-module-options=<module[=alias]:<[nameA:valueA,nameB:valueB,...]>>

With exception for the first semicolon (which is considered to be a part of module reference), the rest of separators could potentially intervene with values. In that case user could use a doubled or tripled separator tokens as an escaping aid:

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=writecache:file::C:\TEMP\fileA.db

The same separator escaping method works for module options in .snmprec value field. The only difference is that .snmprec value syntax uses equal sign and commands as separators.

Standard variation modules

The following variation modules are shipped with SNMP Simulator:

  • The numeric module produces a non-decreasing sequence of integers over time
  • The notification module sends SNMP TRAP/INFORM messages to distant SNMP entity
  • The writecache module accepts and stores (in memory/file) SNMP variable-bindings being modified through SNMP SET command
  • The sql module reads/writes var-binds from/to a SQL database
  • The redis module reads/writes var-binds from/to a no-SQL key-value store
  • The delay module delays SNMP response by specified or random time
  • The error module flag errors in SNMP response PDU
  • The multiplex module uses a time series of .snmprec files picking one at a time.
  • The subprocess module executes external process and puts its stdout values into response

Numeric module

The numeric module maintains and returns a changing in time integer value. The law and rate of changing is configurable. This module is per-OID stateful and configurable.

The numeric module accepts the following comma-separated key=value parameters in .snmprec value field:

  • min - the minimum value ever stored and returned by this module. Default is 0.
  • max - the maximum value ever stored and returned by this module. Default is 2**32 or 2**64 (Counter64 type).
  • initial - initial value. Default is min.
  • atime - if non-zero, uses current time for value generation, not Simulator uptime.
  • wrap - if zero, generated value will freeze when reaching ‘max’. Otherwise generated value is reset to ‘min’.
  • function - defines elapsed-time-to-generated-value relationship. Can be any of reasonably suitable mathematical function from the math module such as sin, log, pow etc. The only requirement is that used function accepts a single integer argument. Default is x = f(x).
  • rate - elapsed time scaling factor. Default is 1.
  • scale - function value scaling factor. Default is 1.
  • offset - constant value by which the return value increases on each invocation. Default is 0.
  • deviation - random deviation maximum. Default is 0 which means no deviation.
  • cumulative - if non-zero sums up previous value with the newly generated one. This is important when simulating COUNTER values.

This module generates values by execution of the following formula:

TIME = TIMENOW if atime else UPTIME

v = function(TIME * rate) * scale + offset + RAND(-deviation, deviation)

v = v + prev_v if cumulative else v

Examples

# COUNTER object
1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.13.1|65:numeric|scale=10,deviation=1,function=cos,cumulative=1,wrap=1

# GAUGE object
1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.14.1|66:numeric|min=5,max=50,initial=25

You are welcome to try the numeric module in action at our online public SNMP simulation service:

$ snmpget -v2c -c variation/virtualtable demo.snmplabs.com  \
    IF-MIB::ifLastChange.1 IF-MIB::ifInOctets.1
IF-MIB::ifLastChange.1 = Timeticks: (16808012) 1 day, 22:41:20.12
IF-MIB::ifInOctets.1 = Counter32: 30374688

The numeric module can be used for simulating INTEGER, Counter32, Counter64, Gauge32, TimeTicks objects.

Delay module

The delay module postpones SNMP request processing for specified number of milliseconds.

Delay module accepts the following comma-separated key=value parameters in .snmprec value field:

  • value - holds the var-bind value to be included into SNMP response. In case of a string value containing commas, use the hexvalue key instead.
  • hexvalue - holds the var-bind value as a sequence of ASCII codes in hex form. Before putting it into var-bind, hexvalue contents will be converted into ASCII text.
  • wait - specifies for how many milliseconds to delay SNMP response. Default is 500ms. If the value exceeds 999999, request will never be answered (PDU will be dropped right away).
  • deviation - random delay deviation ranges (ms). Default is 0 which means no deviation.
  • vlist - a list of triples comparison:constant:delay to use on SET operation for choosing delay based on value supplied in request. The following comparison operators are supported: eq, lt, gt.
  • tlist - a list of triples comparison:time:delay to use for choosing request delay based on time of day (seconds, UNIX time). The following comprison operators are supported: eq, lt, gt.

Examples

The following entry makes Simulator responding with an integer value of 6 delayed by 0.1sec +- 0.2 sec (negative delays are casted into zeros):

1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.3.1|2:delay|value=6,wait=100,deviation=200

Here the hexvalue takes shape of an OCTET STRING value ‘0:12:79:62:f9:40’ delayed by exactly 0.8 sec:

1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.6.1|4:delay|hexvalue=00127962f940,wait=800

This entry drops PDU right away so the Manager will timed out:

1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.7.1|2:delay|wait=1000000

The following entry uses module default on GET/GETNEXT/GETBULK operations. However delays response by 0.1 sec if request value is exactly 0 and delays response by 1 sec on value equal to 1.

1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.8.1|2:delay|vlist=eq:0:100:eq:1:1000,value=1

The entry that follows uses module default on GET/GETNEXT/GETBULK operations, however delays response by 0.001 sec if request value is exactly 100, uses module default on values >= 100 but <= 300 (0.5 sec), and drops request on values > 300:

1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.9.1|67:delay|vlist=lt:100:1:gt:300:1000000,value=150

The next example will simulate an unavailable Agent past 01.04.2013 (1364860800 in UNIX time):

1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.10.1|67:delay|tlist=gt:1364860800:1000000,value=150

Note

Since SNMP Simulator is internally an asynchronous, single-thread application, any delayed response will block all concurrent requests processing as well.

Error module

The error module flags a configured error at SNMP response PDU.

Error module accepts the following comma-separated key=value parameters in .snmprec value field:

  • op - either of get, set or any values to indicate SNMP operation that would trigger error response. Here get also enables GETNEXT and GETBULK operations. Default is any.

  • value - holds the var-bind value to be included into SNMP response. In case of a string value containing commas, use the hexvalue key instead.

  • hexvalue - holds the var-bind value as a sequence of ASCII codes in hex form. Before putting it into var-bind, hexvalue contents will be converted into ASCII text.

  • status - specifies error to be flagged. The following SNMP errors codes are supported:

    • genError
    • noAccess
    • wrongType
    • wrongValue
    • noCreation
    • inconsistentValue
    • resourceUnavailable
    • commitFailed
    • undoFailed
    • authorizationError
    • notWritable
    • inconsistentName
    • noSuchObject
    • noSuchInstance
    • endOfMib
  • vlist - a list of triples (comparison:constant:error) to use as an access list for SET values.

    The following comparison operators are supported:

    • eq
    • lt
    • gt

    The following SNMP errors are supported (case-insensitive):

    • genError
    • noAccess
    • wrongType
    • wrongValue
    • noCreation
    • inconsistentValue
    • resourceUnavailable
    • commitFailed
    • undoFailed
    • authorizationError
    • notWritable
    • inconsistentName
    • noSuchObject
    • noSuchInstance
    • endOfMib

Examples

1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.1.1|2:error|op=get,status=authorizationError,value=1
1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.2.1|4:error|op=set,status=commitfailed,hexvalue=00127962f940
1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.3.1|2:error|vlist=gt:2:wrongvalue,value=1
1.3.6.1.2.1.2.2.1.6.1|4:error|status=noaccess

The first entry flags authorizationError on GET* and no error on SET. Second entry flags commitfailed on SET but responds without errors to GET*. Third entry fails with wrongvalue only on SET with values > 2. Finally, forth entry always flags noaccess error.

Writecache module

The writecache module lets you make particular OID at a .snmprec file writable via SNMP SET operation. The new value will be stored in Simulator process’s memory or disk-based data store and communicated back on SNMP GET/GETNEXT/GETBULK operations. Data saved in disk-based data store will NOT be lost upon Simulator restart.

Module initialization allows for passing a name of a database file to be used as a disk-based data store:

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=writecache:file:/tmp/shelves.db

All modifed values will be kept and then subsequently used on a per-OID basis in the specified file. If data store file is not specified, the writecache module will keep all its data in [volatile] memory.

The writecache module accepts the following comma-separated key=value parameters in .snmprec value field:

  • value - holds the var-bind value to be included into SNMP response. In case of a string value containing commas, use hexvalue instead.

  • hexvalue - holds the var-bind value as a sequence of ASCII codes in hex form. Before putting it into var-bind, hexvalue contents will be converted into ASCII text.

  • vlist - a list of triples comparison:constant:error to use as an access list for SET values.

    The following comparison operators are supported:

    • eq
    • lt
    • gt

    The following SNMP errors are supported (case-insensitive):

    • genError
    • noAccess
    • wrongType
    • wrongValue
    • noCreation
    • inconsistentValue
    • resourceUnavailable
    • commitFailed
    • undoFailed
    • authorizationError
    • notWritable
    • inconsistentName
    • noSuchObject
    • noSuchInstance
    • endOfMib

Examples

1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0|2:writecache|value=42

In the above configuration, the initial value is 42 and can be modified by the snmpset command (assuming correct community name and Simulator is running locally).

$ snmpset -v2c -c community localhost 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0 i 24

A more complex example involves using an access list. The following example allows only values of 1 and 2 to be SET:

1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0|2:writecache|value=42,vlist=lt:1:wrongvalue:gt:2:wrongvalue

Any other SET values will result in SNNP WrongValue error in response.

Note

An attempt to SET a value of incompatible type will also result in error.

Multiplex module

The multiplex module allows you to serve many snapshots for a single Agent picking just one snapshot at a time for answering SNMP request. That simulates a more natural Agent behaviour including the set of OIDs changing in time.

This module is usually configured to serve an OID subtree in an .snmprec file entry.

The multiplex module accepts the following comma-separated key=value parameters in .snmprec value field:

  • dir - path to .snmprec files directory. If path is not absolute, it is interpreted relative to Simulator’s –data-dir. The .snmprec files names here must have numerical names ordered by time.
  • period - specifies for how long to use each .snmprec snapshot before switching to the next one. Default is 60 seconds.
  • wrap - if true, instructs the module to cycle through all available .snmprec files. If false, the system stops switching .snmprec files as it reaches the last one. Default is false.
  • control - defines a new OID to be used for switching .snmprec file via SNMP SET command.

Examples

1.3.6.1.2.1.2|:multiplex|dir=variation/snapshots,period=10.0
1.3.6.1.3.1.1|4|snmprec

The variation/snapshots/ directory contents is a name-ordered collection of .snmprec files:

$ ls -l /usr/local/share/snmpsim/data/variation/snapshots
-rw-r--r--  1 root  staff  3145 Mar 30 22:52 00000.snmprec
-rw-r--r--  1 root  staff  3145 Mar 30 22:52 00001.snmprec
-rw-r--r--  1 root  staff  3145 Mar 30 22:52 00002.snmprec
...

Simulator can use each of these files only once through its configured time series. To make it cycling over them, use wrap option.

The .snmprec files served by the multiplex module can not include references to variation modules.

In cases when automatic, time-based .snmprec multiplexing is not applicable for simulation purposes, .snmprec selection can be configured: </p>

1.3.6.1.2.1.2|:multiplex|dir=variation/snapshots,control=1.3.6.1.2.1.2.999

The following command will switch multiplex module to use the first .snmprec file for simulation:

$ snmpset -v2c -c variation/multiplex localhost 1.3.6.1.2.1.2.999 i 0

Whenever control OID is present in multiplex module options, the time-based multiplexing will not be used.

Subprocess module

The subprocess module can be used to execute an external program passing it request data and using its stdout output as a response value.

Module invocation supports passing a shell option which (if true) makes Simulator using shell for subprocess invocation. Default is True on Windows platform and False on all others.

Warning

With shell=True, UNIX shell gets into the pipeline what compromises security.

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=subprocess:shell:1

Value part of .snmprec line should contain space-separated path to external program executable followed by optional command-line parameters.

SNMP request parameters could be passed to the program to be executed by means of macro variables. With subprocess module, macro variables names always carry ‘@’ sign at front and back (e.g. @MACRO@).

Macros

  • @DATAFILE@ - resolves into the .snmprec file selected by SNMP Simulator for serving current request
  • @OID@ - resolves into an OID of .snmprec line selected for serving current request
  • @TAG@ - resolves into the <tag> component of .snmprec line selected for serving current request
  • @ORIGOID@ - resolves into currently processed var-bind OID
  • @ORIGTAG@ - resolves into value type of currently processed var-bind
  • @ORIGVALUE@ - resolves into value of currently processed var-bind
  • @SETFLAG@ - resolves into ‘1’ on SNMP SET, ‘0’ otherwise
  • @NEXTFLAG@ - resolves into ‘1’ on SNMP GETNEXT/GETBULK, ‘0’ otherwise
  • @SUBTREEFLAG@ - resolves into ‘1’ if the .snmprec file line selected for processing current request serves a subtree of OIDs rather than a single specific OID
  • @TRANSPORTDOMAIN@ - SNMP transport domain as an OID. It has a one-to-one relationship with local interfaces Simulator is configured to listen at
  • @TRANSPORTADDRESS@ - peer transport address
  • @SECURITYMODEL@ - SNMPv3 Security Model
  • @SECURITYNAME@ - SNMPv3 Security Name
  • @SECURITYLEVEL@ - SNMPv3 Security Level
  • @CONTEXTNAME@ - SNMPv3 Context Name

Examples

1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0|4:subprocess|echo SNMP Context is @DATAFILE@, received \
  request for @ORIGOID@, matched @OID@, received tag/value \
  "@ORIGTAG@"/"@ORIGVALUE@", would return value tagged @TAG@, SET request \
  flag is @SETFLAG@, next flag is @NEXTFLAG@, subtree flag is \
  @SUBTREEFLAG@
1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0|2:subprocess|date +%s

The first entry simply packs all current macro variables contents as a response string my printing them to stdout with echo, second entry invokes the UNIX date command instructing it to report elapsed UNIX epoch time.

Note .snmprec tag values – executed program’s stdout will be casted into appropriate type depending of tag indication.

Notification module

The notification module can send SNMP TRAP/INFORM notifications to distant SNMP engines by way of serving SNMP request sent to Simulator. In other words, SNMP message sent to Simulator can trigger sending TRAP/INFORM message to pre-configured targets.

Note

No new process is created when sending SNMP notification – snmpsimd’s own SNMP engine is reused.

The notification module accepts the following comma-separated key=value parameters in .snmprec value field:

  • value - holds the variable-bindings value to be included into SNMP response message.

  • op - either of get, set or any values to indicate SNMP operation that would trigger notification. Here get also enables GETNEXT and GETBULK operations. Default is set.

  • vlist - a list of pairs comparison:constant to use as event triggering criteria to be compared against SET values. The following comparisons are supported: eq, lt, gt.

  • version - SNMP version to use (1,2c,3).

  • ntftype - indicates notification type. Either trap or inform.

  • community - SNMP community name. For v1, v2c only. Default is public.

  • trapoid - SNMP TRAP PDU element. Default is coldStar.

  • uptime - SNMP TRAP PDU element. Default is local SNMP engine uptime.

  • agentaddress - SNMP TRAP PDU element. For v1 only. Default is local SNMP engine address.

  • enterprise - SNMP TRAP PDU element. For v1 only.

  • user - USM username. For v3 only.

  • authproto - USM auth protocol. For v3 only. Either md5 or sha. Default is md5.

  • authkey - USM auth key. For v3 only.

  • privproto - USM encryption protocol. For v3 only. Either des or aes. Default is des.

  • privkey - USM encryption key. For v3 only.

  • proto - transport protocol. Either udp or udp6. Default is udp.

  • host- hostname or network address to send notification to.

  • port - UDP port to send notification to. Default is 162.

  • varbinds - a semicolon-separated list of OID:TAG:VALUE:OID:TAG:VALUE… of var-binds to add into SNMP TRAP PDU.

    The following TAG values are recognized:

    • s - OctetString (expects character string)
    • h - OctetString (expects hex string)
    • i - Integer32
    • o - ObjectName
    • a - IpAddress
    • u - Unsigned32
    • g - Gauge32
    • t - TimeTicks
    • b - Bits
    • I - Counter64

Examples

The following three .snmprec lines will send SNMP v1, v2c and v3 notifications whenever Simulator is processing GET* and/or SET request for configured OIDs:

1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0|4:notification|op=get,version=1,community=public,\
  proto=udp,host=127.0.0.1,port=162,ntftype=trap,\
  trapoid=1.3.6.1.4.1.20408.4.1.1.2.0.432,uptime=12345,agentaddress=127.0.0.1,\
  enterprise=1.3.6.1.4.1.20408.4.1.1.2,\
  varbinds=1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0:s:snmpsim agent:1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0:i:42,\
  value=SNMPv1 trap sender

1.3.6.1.2.1.1.2.0|6:notification|op=set,version=2c,community=public,\
  host=127.0.0.1,ntftype=trap,trapoid=1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.1,\
  varbinds=1.3.6.1.2.1.1.1.0:s:snmpsim agent:1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0:i:42,\
  value=1.3.6.1.1.1

1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0|67:notification|version=3,user=usr-md5-des,authkey=authkey1,\
  privkey=privkey1,host=127.0.0.1,ntftype=inform,trapoid=1.3.6.1.6.3.1.1.5.2,\
  value=123456

Note

The delivery status of INFORM notifications is not communicated back to the SNMP Manager working with Simulator.

SQL module

The sql module lets you keep subtrees of OIDs and their values in a relational database. All SNMP operations are supported including transactional SET.

Module invocation requires passing database type (sqlite3, psycopg2, MySQL and any other compliant to Python DB-API and importable as a Python module) and connect string which is database dependant.

Besides DB-specific connect string key-value parameters, sql module supports the following comma-separated key:value options whilst running in recording mode:

  • dbtype - SQL DBMS type in form of Python DPI API-compliant module. It will be imported into Python as specified.

  • dbtable - Default SQL table name to use for storing recorded snapshot. It is used if table name is not specified in .snmprec file.

  • isolationlevel - SQL transaction isolation level. Allowed values are:

    • 0 - READ UNCOMMITTED
    • 1 - READ COMMITTED
    • 2 - REPEATABLE READ
    • 3 - SERIALIZABLE

    Default is READ COMMITTED.

Database connection

For SQLite database invocation use the following command:

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=sql:dbtype:sqlite3,database:/var/tmp/sqlite.db

To use a MySQL database for OID/value storage, the following Simulator invocation would work:

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=sql:dbtype:mysql.connector,\
  host:127.0.0.1,port:3306,user:snmpsim,password:snmpsim,database:snmpsim

assuming you have the MySQL Connector/Python driver is installed on the SNMP Simulator machine and a MySQL server running at 127.0.0.1 with MySQL user/password snmpsim/snmpsim having full access to a database snmpsim

Another variation of MySQL server installation setup on a UNIX system employs UNIX domain socket for client-server communication. In that case the following command-line for .snmprec might work:

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=sql:dbtype:mysql.connector,
  unix_socket:/var/run/mysql/mysql.sock,user:snmpsim,password:snmpsim,
  database:snmpsim

Alternatively, the MySQL for Python package can be used for Simulator to MySQL connection:

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=sql:dbtype:MySQLdb,host:127.0.0.1,
  port:3306,user:snmpsim,passwd:snmpsim,db:snmpsim

If you wish to use PostgresSQL database for OID/value storage, the following command line will do the job:

$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=sql:dbtype:psycopg2,
  user:snmpsim,password:snmpsim,database:snmpsim

assuming you have the Psycopg Python adapter is installed on the SNMP Simulator machine and a PostgreSQL server running locally (accessed through default UNIX domain socket) with PostgreSQL user/password snmpsim/snmpsim having full access to a database snmpsim.

Simulation data configuration

The .snmprec value is expected to hold database table name to keep all OID-value pairs served within selected .snmprec line. This table can either be created automatically whenever sql module is invoked in recording mode or can be created and populated by hand. In the latter case table layout should be as follows:

CREATE TABLE <tablename> (oid text,
                          tag text,
                          value text,
                          maxaccess text)

The most usual setup is to keep many OID-value pairs in a database table referred to by a .snmprec line serving a subtree of OIDs:

1.3.6.1.2.1.1|:sql|snmprec

In the above case all OIDs under 1.3.6.1.2.1.1 prefix will be handled by a sql module using ‘snmprec’ table.

Note

To make SQL’s ORDER BY clause working with OIDs, each sub-OID stored in the database (in case of manual database population) must be left-padded with a good bunch of spaces (each sub-OID width is 10 characters).

Redis module

The redis module lets you keep subtrees of OIDs and their values in a no-SQL key-value store. Besides complete SNMP operations support, Redis server-side Lua scripts are also supported at both variation and recording stages.

For redis variation module to work you must also have the redis-py Python module installed on your system. Module invocation requires passing Redis database connection string. The following parameters are supported:

  • host - Redis hostname or IP address.
  • port - Redis TCP port the server is listening on.
  • unix_socket - UNIX domain socket Redis server is listening on.
  • db - Redis database number.
  • password - Redis database admission password.
$ snmpsimd.py --variation-module-options=redis:host:127.0.0.1,port:6379,db:0

SNMP variable-bindings recorded by Simulator in a single recording session is placed into a dedicated key namespace called “key space”. This allows for keeping many versions of the same oid-value pair either belonging to different Agents or recorded at different times. These key spaces are organized by pre-pending a session-unique “key space” to each key put into Redis.

Simulator keeps recorded SNMP var-binds in three types of Redis data structures:

  • Redis String where each key is composed from key space and an OID joint with a dash <key-space>-<oid>. Values are SNMP data type tag and value in snmprec format. This is where simulation data is stored.
  • Redis LIST object keyed <key-space>|oids_ordering where each element is a key from the String above. The purpose of this structure is to order OIDs what is important for serving SNMP GETNEXT/GETBULK queries.
  • Redis LIST object keyed <key-spaces-id> where each element is a <key-space> from the LIST above. The purpose of this structure is to consolidate many key spaces into a sequence to form simulation data time series and ease switching key spaces during simulation.

The data structure above can be created manually or automatically whenever redis module is invoked in recording mode.

Note

To make string-typed OIDs comparable, sub-OIDs of original OIDs must be left-padded with a good bunch of spaces (up to 9) so that 1.3.6 will become ‘ 1. 3. 6’.

The .snmprec value is expected to hold more Redis database access parameters, specific to OID-value pairs served within selected .snmprec line.

  • key-spaces-id - Redis key used to store a sequence of key-spaces referring to oid-value collections used for simulation.
  • period - number of seconds to switch from one key-space to another within the key-spaces-id list.
  • evalsha - Redis server side Lua script to use for accessing oid-value pairs stored in Redis. If this option is not given, bare Redis GET/SET commands will be used instead.

Examples

The most usual setup is to keep many OID-value pairs in a Redis database referred to by a .snmprec line serving a subtree of OIDs:

1.3.6.1.2.1.1|:redis|key-spaces-id=1234

In the above case all OIDs under 1.3.6.1.2.1.1 prefix will be handled by redis module using key spaces stored in “1234” Redis list.

For example, the “1234” keyed list can hold the following key spaces: [“4321”, “4322”, “4323”]. Then the following keys can be stored for 1.3.6.1.2.1.1.3.0 OID:

"4321-<9 spaces>.1<9 spaces>.3<9 spaces>.6 ... <9 spaces>.3<9 spaces>.0" = "67|812981"
"4322-<9 spaces>.1<9 spaces>.3<9 spaces>.6 ... <9 spaces>.3<9 spaces>.0" = "67|813181"
"4323-<9 spaces>.1<9 spaces>.3<9 spaces>.6 ... <9 spaces>.3<9 spaces>.0" = "67|814233"

If period parameter is passed through the .snmprec record, Simulator will automatically change key space every period seconds when gathering data for SNMP responses.

The key-spaces-id Redis list can also be manipulated by an external application at any moment for the purpose of switching key spaces while Simulator is running. Simulated values can also be modified on-the-fly by an external application. However, when adding/removing OIDs, not just modifying simulation data, care must be taken to keep the <key space>-oids_ordering list ordered and synchronized with the collection of <key space>-OID keys being used for storing simulation data.

Besides using an external application for modifying simulation data, custom Lua script can be used for dynamic response and/or stored data modification. For example, the following .snmprec entry will invoke server-side Lua script stored under the name of “d94bf1756cda4f55bac9fe9bb872f” when getting/setting Redis keys:

1.3.6.1.2.1.1|:redis|key-spaces-id=1234,evalsha=d94bf1756cda4f55bac9fe9bb872f

Here’s an example Lua script, carrying no additional logic, stored at Redis server using the SCRIPT LOAD Redis command:

$ redis-cli
127.0.0.1:6379> script load  "
  if table.getn(ARGV) > 0 then
    return redis.call('set', KEYS[1], ARGV[1])
  else
    return redis.call('get', KEYS[1])
  end
"
"d94bf1756cda4f55bac9fe9bb872f"
127.0.0.1:6379>

SNMP Simulator will perform SET/GET operations through its evalsha script like this:

$ redis-cli
127.0.0.1:6379> evalsha "d94bf1756cda4f55bac9fe9bb872f" 1 "4321|1.
         3.         6.         1.         2.         1.        2.      1.
         1.         0" "4|linksys router"
127.0.0.1:6379> evalsha "d94bf1756cda4f55bac9fe9bb872f" 1 "4321|1.
         3.         6.         1.         2.         1.        2.      1.
         1.         0"
"4|linksys router"
127.0.0.1:6379>

A much more complex Lua scripts could be written to dynamically modify other parts of the database, sending messages to other Redis-backed applications through Redis’s Publish/Subscribe facility.

Writing variation modules

Whenever you consider coding your own variation module, take a look at the existing ones. The API is very simple - it basically takes three Python functions (init, process, shutdown) where process() is expected to return a var-bind pair per each invocation.